“Usual dosages” reflect those considered most likely to achieve the desired serum concentrations, in patients with normal renal and hepatic function. When variable dosages are recommended for different patient groups, these have been represented diagrammatically.
Other parameters such as the usual dosing interval, time-to-peak concentration, time to steady-state serum concentration, elimination half-life, and protein binding are described for patients with normal organ function and average pharmacokinetic characteristics.
The therapeutic ranges quoted provide guidelines as to the patient drug concentrations which are expected to achieve optimal therapeutic effect. These therapeutic ranges are visualized as a green shaded area on the therapeutic range diagram lying between the subtherapeutic (blue) concentration and the potentially toxic (red) drug concentration.
Only a partial list of toxic effects and factors affecting drug concentrations are provided. These lists are not intended to be comprehensive. For more detailed information on individual drug preparations and characteristics, the manufacturer’s package insert and the current medical literature should be consulted.