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Hypothesis/ Research Ideas
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Statistical Methods/ Software's
Publications/ Research Outcomes
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Admin wrote: 15 Apr 2020, 13:44 Which research areas will not be suitable for PharmD Projects?

Rather than answering which research areas will not be suitable, it will be easy to say which areas will be suitable :-) :-)

In my opinion, any research which has a component of 'drug', 'therapy', 'therapeutic outcome', 'drug outcomes', 'drug related issues', etc. are suitable for PharmD projects.

To say simply, any research which is associated with drug and defined roles of pharmacists should be fine. In any research, ask a question, 'What is the role of Pharmacist' or 'Is it the role of Pharmacist'. If the answer is 'Yes', then it is fine.
Jemy R Joseph wrote: 19 Apr 2020, 11:10 What are the steps we can take to ensure high possibility of getting a research paper published in relevant journals?
@Jemy R Joseph

You have answer in the question only. Submit to relevant journal. It is better to understand the scope of the journal, and assessing whether any such similar article is published earlier in the journal will also help.
greeshma_1997 wrote: 19 Apr 2020, 13:35 When preparing our own questionnaire is it mandatory to validate those questionnaires,is yes,what are the criterias?

Yes, for sure the questionnaire developed by our own has to be validated. Though there are many validation criteria, generally validation of questionnaire is done for the content validity and reliability.

Validity will tell whether the questionnaire we have designed adequately capture the answers the research question for which we are doing the study

Reliability will tell whether the items of the questionnaire are understood in the same manner by every respondent and the same response is given every time by the same responder

If there is a translation involved, then language validation has to be done through forward and back translation.

These are few basic validations required for the questionnaire. If development of the questionnaire itself is the research work, more validation parameters have to be considered.
Grace Thomas wrote: 19 Apr 2020, 13:47 When using questionnaires in the project, how accurate are these questionnaires to analyse the resulting data? And also Is it better to use a yes or no questionnaire or a scoring questionnaire?
@Grace Thomas

It is always better use closed end questions as multiple choices, scales, grading, rating, etc. rather than open end questions.

If more number of open end questions are given, too many varieties of answers will be obtained and it will not be easy to categorise the answers.

After close end questions, there may be couple of open end questions given to express the respondent's own view.
Dear all,

One of our Moderator - Dr. D.Raja, M Pharm, Ph.D operating his consultancy services from chennai. He is known for his teaching, conducting workshops on bio-statistics and statistical software's. Additionally he provides consultancy services for Drug Information Services.

He also planning to introduce his Pharma Schloarship Program for the Students - To know more follow this link -
(154.89 KiB) Downloaded 29 times
Contact - @draja
Report - Group Discussion - 3 - PharmD Research Project - An overview

Date- 20.04.2020 & 21.04.2020

Total number of Moderators: 12

Total number of Resource Person: 01

Total number of direct participants: 47

Total number of guest viewers: >1500

Total number of Page Views: >12000

Total No of Questions Received : 68

Total No of Replies Provided by the moderators & Resource Person: 109

List of questions answered

1. What is the difference between efficacy and effectiveness with respect to clinical trials?
2. Are there any softwares for creating scales for a research project based on a specified disease/disorder?
3. What statistical test has to be applied for finding the statistical significance of 3 disease severe categories?
4. How to estimate sample size for genetic polymorphisms studies?
5. There are various reference management software’s available for reference management such as Zotero , Mendeley etc. In your experience which is the best to use as a beginner?
6. Will research papers give me a chance to apply for Master's degree with scholarship???
7. In studies which include psychiatric patients is it necessary to obtain consent from both patient as well as the care taker??
8. What are the areas important for Pharmds in clinical research?
9. What can I conclude with p value of 8e-05?
10. In routine practice, how do we know which pharmaceutical agent is more efficacious? Is it just check graded dose response curve or side effects also?? Should we check that time it self-cost effectiveness of drug also??
11. Why we should use only the licensed statistical software's for data analysis?
12. How can a student approach for meta-analysis which involves statistical methods for interpretation?
13. What are the steps we can take to ensure high possibility of getting a research paper published in relevant journals?
14. What are the free applications such as Revman available to carry out meta-analysis? Which is the best portal to learn to use Revman as a beginner?
15. What is a Cochran - Armitage trend test and how is it different from the conventional chi square test?
16. How do we calculate sample size and what based we have to select sample size?
17. What is the minimum sample size to be taken when categorization into 3 disease severe groups is required?
18. Can i do my project under the guide ship of a clinician preceptor?
19. How to differentiate a systematic review from narrative review?
20. What are the challenges we have to face during the publication of our research?
21. How do I choose a proper journal to publish our research paper?
22. How can we assure the quality of data that has been collected by the students for their project?
23. What kind of database can be used for the health outcome research?
24. How to figure out the bias (if any) in the selected article which is to be involved in the systematic review?
25. How can we filter the pharmacy related journals from Scopus Index Site?
26. How to effectively create explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria to include studies under a systematic review? Are such rigorous criteria necessary for including studies under a narrative review?
27. Can you please suggest a free online plagiarism checker sir?
28. In Palisade software to make a decision tree "Value" means Cost or the Sample size?
29. Are there any software’s or databases for follow up in patients in a prospective cohort study?
30. What is the acceptable level of plagiarism with any research communications?
31. Which application like Zotero or Mendeley is best for citation and reference management with minimal errors?
32. What are the challenges we face while doing a review article? And what all aspects should we keep in mind while doing a review article?
33. What are the effective methods which can be followed in order to minimize plagiarisms?
34. What's the Quantitative alternative for data synthesis if a meta-analysis cannot be performed?
35. In genetic studies which study design is appropriate?
36. Which data analysis model/test shall I use to demonstrate the increasing prevalence of a certain disease with time?
37. What is the role of literature review in qualitative research?
38. What kind of new or interesting topics can we add in review articles to make unique of the article?
39. How to estimate sample size for genetic polymorphisms studies?
40. Can a forest plot be conducted for one study, if yes, what is the significance of that?
41. What is the difference between scoping and integrative literature review?
42. Are consents always necessary in observational, non-interventional prospective studies?
43. We are tied with a Secondary Care non-teaching hospital, what is the feasibility to carry out a paediatric study with an optimal sample size? What are the ethical concerns?
44. What are the economical and practical constraints that may be encountered when conducting a research on the geriatric population?
45. Can you suggest some primary data sources for the literature review for a study on drug safety?
46. How can we control reporting bias while conducting an observational study?
47. What's the Quantitative alternative for data synthesis if a meta-analysis cannot be performed?
48. How do we choose an appropriate drug for doing Pharmacoeconomic studies in a secondary care hospital sector?
49. What are the measures to improve the reliability and validity in a research study?
50. How to interpret MANOVA in SPSS?
51. While choosing articles for narrative review is it a must that it should contain Indian articles/studies, if yes, to what extent.
52. When preparing our own questionnaire is it mandatory to validate those questionnaires, is yes, what are the criteria’s?
53. When using questionnaires in the project, how accurate are these questionnaires to analyse the resulting data? And also Is it better to use a yes or no questionnaire or a scoring questionnaire?
54. How to estimate sample size for genetic polymorphisms studies in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
55. How many articles are accepted for systematic review and meta-analysis at a minimum?
56. What are the basic points for selecting a good research topic? How do we select a relevant research topic?
57. What is the most appropriate statistical analysis method that can be used for a cross sectional study.
58. Is it necessary to use more than one analytical methods when comparing 2 variables? i.e is it necessary to include another statistical method if using chi square test or is only chi square test enough just to compare variables and find the dominant group.
59. How does communication impact the health care sector?
60. Is there any Indian databases are available for the researchers to legally access the patient information's?
61. Can you suggest a best online tool for sample size calculation?
62. Which research areas will not be suitable for PharmD Projects?
63. In the RCT with the available Limited Resources I have Planned to do a Pilot Study. When I met a Statistician He Said You Can Choose Convenient Sampling Method and Discussion with Various Other Mentors Told me that We Should have a Minimum of 30 in Each Group Small Population.
64. How to design a qualitative/ quantitative research question?
65. what are assessment scales for birth defects?
66. When doing Markov Modelling, if the sample size is not sufficient, is it right to do simulation method to obtain data for the study? If it is possible, what are simulation methods that can be used?
67. What is ORCID? How it is useful for the researchers?
68. How to analysis the birth defect?

To view the Answers/Replies - Click Here

Topic is locked. First i would like to thank all the participants who raised questions and participated actively in our group discussion. I would like to know your feedback about this group discussion & If you have any suggestions feel free to inform us. Overall, we got excellent moderators and i thank particularly Mr. Muhammed Rashid, Dr. Sai Krishna Gudi, Dr. Raja D and Dr. Satya Narayana Reddy for their active participation for the last two days.

I also convey my special thanks to Dr.Sulaiman Sait, Dr.Hema, Mr. Vinod and Dr. Tarun for your support to make this as successful event.

I thank my Professor & HOD -Dr Ponnusankar M Pharm, Ph.D., Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty and PharmD Coordinator Dr. K P Arun - JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty and my wife Dr. Swathi Swaroopa.B for their constant support and encouragements.

My sincere thanks to our Resource Person Dr. Krishna Undela, for his valuable inputs through out the discussion.

We will meet again with an another interesting Topic in Group Discussion-4.

Our learning process will continue.... Thank you all
Admin wrote: 15 Apr 2020, 14:44 Is there any Indian databases are available for the researchers to legally access the patient information's?

As per my knowledge, currently, there is no national-wide database for accessing patient information for research. Tamil Nadu is in the process of establishing a hospital management information system. As of now, researchers are mostly using the data generated by the hospitals through Electronic Medical Records, and also the data available with Insurance Companies. Find here the interesting article on Health Records System in India ( ... -India.pdf).
Dear all,

Participants ( Those who involved in discussion by asking questions/answers) can download their certificate from e - learn portal, participants are requested to make your registration with PharmD Info - Elearn for receiving certificates. Contact me for guidance - 9894876656
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