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#2023
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) are the leading bacterial cause of acute otitis media (AOM), having the nasopharynx (NP) as their reservoir. In October 2001 we began a prospective, multicenter, randomized, evaluator blind study, comparing the efficacy of amoxicillin-sulbactam (Ax/S) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Ax/C) for the treatment of non-recurrent AOM (nr-AOM).

Both antimicrobial susceptibility (AS) to Ax/S and Ax/C from Sp and Hi carried by study children (aged 6-48 months with nr-AOM) and, clinical outcome after treatment with high dose of either Ax/C (7:1) or Ax/S (4:1) (amoxicillin dose: 80 mg/(kg day), b.i.d. for 10 days) were assessed. Nasal cultures (NCs) were taken at Day 0. Follow-up NCs, were done only for Sp carriers.

On final analysis 247/289 pts (85.5%) were fully evaluable (120 Ax/S and 127 Ax/C). NP carriage rate of Hi and Sp at Day 0 was 32.2% (93/289 pts) and 28.7% (83/289 pts), respectively. Persistent Sp carriage was detected only in 2 pts. Hi betalactamase positive rate was 13% (12/93). MICs for Ax/S and Ax/C were identical when tested against Sp and Hi isolates (range < or = 0.016-1.0 and < or = 0.016-0.25 mg/L, respectively).

Clinical efficacy at Days 12-14 and 28-42 were 98.3% (115/117) and 94.2% (97/103) for Ax/S; and 98.3% (115/117) and 95.1% (98/103) for Ax/C, respectively (pNS). We conclude, that Sp and Hi isolated from NCs of nr-AOM pts were highly sensitive to both drugs and correlated with high clinical efficacy rate.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16061111
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