Methadone and buprenorphine can be used for the treatment of pain and/or MAT, which combines medication with counseling and behavioral therapies. MAT plays an important role in treating opioid use disorder. For pregnant women, this treatment may ultimately improve outcomes for them and their babies.
However, MAT can also present challenges due to the risk of the developing fetus being exposed to opioids, which can lead to neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). NOWS can be effectively managed, but may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated.
Since NOWS can result from in utero exposure to opioids – whether medically authorized or illicit – the risk of NOWS from MAT must be balanced against the risk of untreated opioid addiction during pregnancy; an independent advisory committee and numerous reproductive health experts agree this balance is important. If left untreated, illicit opioid use is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm birth, or fetal death.
The FDA’s action requiring safety labeling changes for MAT-only methadone and buprenorphine products is intended to appropriately inform prescribers about the risks of NOWS without inadvertently discouraging treatment for pregnant women with opioid addiction.
This action is among a number of steps the agency has taken recently to inform prescribers about the appropriate use of opioid medications. Labels for buprenorphine products that are used to treat pain are already required to provide information to prescribers about the risks associated with NOWS in a boxed warning, which is the FDA’s strongest warning. These new safety labeling change requirements for methadone and buprenorphine products that are used for MAT include a statement in the Warnings and Precautions section about the risk of NOWS, as well as related modifications to the Pregnancy, Dependence, and Patient Counseling Information sections. (A boxed warning for NOWS is not being required for the MAT-only methadone and buprenorphine products.)
Refrenence: Drug Safety Alerts FDA /Dated [5/26/16]