Haemovigilance is a set of surveillance procedures covering the whole transfusion chain from the collection of blood and its components to the follow-up of its recipients intended to collect and assess information on unexpected or undesirable effects resulting from the therapeutic use of labile blood products and to prevent their occurrence and recurrence. It is an important tool for improving safe blood transfusion practices in a country.
The Haemovigilance Programme of India (HvPI) was launched on 10th December -2012 in the country.
The scope of different hemovigilance systems varies due to differences in the spectrum of reporting, that is, reporting of adverse reaction versus adverse events, all versus serious adverse reactions only; only incidents in recipients or also in donors; all adverse events or only the serious adverse reactions in recipients. Ideally, the hemovigilance system should cover processes throughout the entire transfusion chain, from blood donation, processing, and transfusion to patients for the monitoring, reporting, and investigation of adverse events and reactions and near misses related to blood transfusion. It should be well coordinated between the blood transfusion service, hospital clinical staff and transfusion laboratories, hospital transfusion committees, regulatory agency, and national health authorities.
Pharmacist can involve in reporting TRR - Transfusion Reaction Reporting
Few examples of Transfusions Reactions may help you to develop your understanding
Management of transfusion reactions varies according to the type of reaction.
Acute hemolytic reactions (antibody mediated) are managed as follows:
1. Immediately discontinue the transfusion while maintaining venous access for emergency management.
2.Anticipate hypotension, renal failure, and DIC.
3.Prophylactic measures to reduce the risk of renal failure may include low-dose dopamine (1-5 mcg/kg/min), vigorous hydration with crystalloid solutions (3000 mL/m 2/24 h), and osmotic diuresis with 20% mannitol (100 mL/m 2/bolus, followed by 30 mL/m 2/h for 12 h).
If DIC is documented and bleeding requires treatment, transfusions of frozen plasma, pooled cryoprecipitates for fibrinogen, and/or platelet concentrates may be indicated.
Acute hemolytic reactions (nonantibody mediated) are managed as follows:
The transfusion of serologically compatible, although damaged, red blood cells (RBCs) usually does not require rigorous management.
Diuresis induced by an infusion of 500 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride per hour, or as tolerated by the patient, until the intense red color of hemoglobinuria ceases is usually adequate treatment.
All Correspondence w.r.t Haemovigilance may be addressed @ Email: [email protected]
To download the Transfusion Reactions Reporting Form for Blood & Blood Products - TRR Form follow the below link