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SumitRai wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:57
Where we can get resources for patient education on vaccine safety?
Resources are available in various formats—flyers, fact sheets, posters, videos and links to other useful websites. Many of such materials can be downloaded and some items can be ordered through an online ordering system. (Eg;, WHO vaccine safety website, CDC websites etc)

As far as concerned with developing countries there is no best resource than the patient counselling by treating physician or nurse for bringing the awareness on importance of vaccine safety.
Juny Sebastian wrote:
24 Nov 2018, 23:45
roshan.tiwari wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:56
If the vaccines used with in a national immunization program dose not par with WHO what are the other options available in India????
All the vaccines present in India's National Immunisation Program are WHO pre- qualified.
If the vaccine is not covered in National Immunisation Program (NIP); then what are the options to be considered ?
lisa_mathew wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:26
Can vaccines be personalized in the case of population specific Adverse Events Following Immunization?
Personalised vaccination or targeted vaccination can be developed which ensures optimised outcome by reducing the risks of either rare adverse effects/ vaccine reactogenicity or vaccine failure.

It is applicable that vaccine can be personalized in terms of individuals, gender, race, ethnicity and even sub population level.

Recent developments on vaccinomics, an applied branch of immunogenetics and immunogenomics in terms of vaccine induced immune responses gives clear picture on scope and advantages of personalized vaccines.
resia.varghese wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:55
Drugs like antibiotics does produce resistance immediately but vaccines does not. why?
Vaccines work prophylactically while antibiotics work therapeutically.

vaccines induce immune responses against multiple targets on a pathogen while drugs have few targets.

Bacteria/ virus generate less variation for vaccine resistance compared to drug resistance
Dear all, Welcome to Day 2 Discussion. I Sincerely thank all the moderators and members who actively involved in this discussion. Hope it was meaningful. I request all the members to follow the replies from our moderators and ask further questions .
annsandra96 wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:50
In case of negative press release about a new vaccine, how one should deal with it?
Negative press release in vaccine safety occurs by an unexpected series of events that initially seem to be out of control. The outcome is usually uncertain when the press release is out, and there is a threat to the success of a immunization programme.

Negative press releases many a times have no foundation in reality and be triggered entirely by mistaken rumours. The nature of rumour is to be quickly understood by the authorities, based on fastness of spreads; more promptly and effective action is to be taken to address it.

This type of issues are not only a challenge, but also an opportunity to improve the communication on immunization issues. It gives the opportunity to dispel negative rumours, to take action to upgrade policies and procedures if required, and to correct any errors or lapses in best practice for overall public safety.
AngelaAbraham96 wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:49
Even after acquiring natural immunity, is vaccination needed or not?
The benefits of vaccine-induced immunity are much greater and the risk is much lower:

While natural immunity typically lasts longer, some vaccines produce longer-lasting immunity (such as DTaP, Hib).

Vaccines often protect against multiple strains of a disease (such as influenza), whereas infection only provides future protection against one strain.

Not all infections offer life-long immunity to even a single strain (i.e. pertussis).

Both natural immunity and immunity from vaccines provide protection, but getting sick, or putting others in danger, just isn’t worth the risk.
Aishwarya Gowda MB wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:57
Patient has undergone an organ transplant, hence on immunosuppresants but at the same time probe to TB infection. Will administration of Anti-TB vaccine be effective in preventing the infection?
The vaccine given to prevent TB infection is BCG vaccine. BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine. Live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated to use in immunocompromised individuals. So you can not use BCG vaccine to any individuals who is receiving immunosuppressants, and the patient may have to take other precautions to avoid TB infections.
Sayoojya R Nair wrote:
22 Nov 2018, 15:27
Comparing to old times infectious diseases are less, is it because of vaccination or due to our improved hygiene ?
Life style changes play a major roles in decreasing the load of infectious diseases in the community. Vaccination is the most important factor helped us to eradicate important communicable diseases.
Eradication of communicable diseases such as small pox, polio etc the examples of the success of our immunisation programs. You might have observed the news about the resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases such as Diphtheria in areas where the vaccination coverage of such vaccination is less is another example describes that vaccination is very much essential to prevent the communicable diseases.
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